Supported Browsers

The supported browsers are:

  • Chrome
  • Edge
  • Firefox
  • Internet Explorer
  • Opera
  • Remote (Selenium Grid)

Webdriver Manager

To download the Webdriver executables run the following command (currently only Chrome and Firefox):

webdriver-manager update

List the current downloaded versions:

webdriver-manager versions

Download a specific Webdriver:

webdriver-manager update -d chrome

To learn more about the Webdriver Manager see:

Path to the Webdriver Executables

Golem needs to know where to find the executables for each of the required browsers. This is accomplished by the settings.json file. By default it points to the drivers folder inside the Test Directory:

  "chromedriver_path": "./drivers/chromedriver*",
  "edgedriver_path": "./drivers/edgedriver*",
  "geckodriver_path": "./drivers/geckodriver*",
  "iedriver_path": "./drivers/iedriver*",
  "operadriver_path": "./drivers/operadriver*"

When using a search pattern like: "chromedriver_path": "./drivers/chromedriver*" Golem will automatically choose the highest version available. In the next case, chromedriver_2.38 will be selected:


Error: cannot find Opera binary

The Opera driver fails to find the Opera binary installed in the machine. To fix this set the opera_binary_path setting to point to the Opera binary. Example:

"opera_binary_path": "C:\\Program Files\\Opera\\launcher.exe", 

Specifying the Browser For a Test

The browser (or browsers) that a test or suite will use can be specified from a few places:

  1. From the run command:

    golem run project_name test_name -b chrome firefox
  2. From a suite:

    browsers = ['chrome', 'firefox']
  3. Using the default_browser setting:

    "default_browser": "chrome"

Valid options:

  • chrome
  • chrome-headless
  • chrome-remote
  • chrome-remote-headless
  • edge
  • edge-remote
  • firefox
  • firefox-headless
  • firefox-remote
  • firefox-remote-headless
  • ie
  • ie-remote
  • opera
  • opera-remote
  • any remote browser defined in settings

Chrome Headless

Chrome can run in headless mode (without a GUI). Set the browser of a test or suite to ‘chrome-headless’ or ‘chrome-remote-headless’.

Requirements: chrome 58+, chromedriver 2.32+

golem run <project> <test> -b chrome-headless

Firefox Headless

Chrome can run in headless mode (without a GUI). Set the browser of a test or suite to ‘firefox-headless’ or ‘firefox-remote-headless’.

golem run <project> <test> -b firefox-headless

Working with the Browser

Opening and Closing the Browser

There is no need to open or close the browser. The first action that requires a browser will open one. At the end of the test, Golem will close the browser. However, this can be done explicitly with the open_browser and close_browser actions.

Retrieving the Open Browser

During the execution of a test the open browser is located in the execution module:

from golem import execution


A shortcut to this is using the get_browser action:

from golem import actions


Custom Browser Boot Up

To have full control over the configuration of a WebDriver instance a custom browser boot up function can be defined.

Custom browsers are defined inside a module in the folder of a project.

Custom browser functions receive the settings dictionary and must return an instance of a GolemXDriver class (golem.webdriver.GolemChromeDriver, golem.webdriver.GolemGeckoDriver, golem.webdriver.GolemRemoteDriver, etc.)


from selenium import webdriver
from golem.webdriver import GolemChromeDriver

def my_custom_chrome(settings):
    chrome_options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
    executable_path = 'path/to/chromedriver'
    return GolemChromeDriver(executable_path=executable_path,

Then use it:

golem run my_project . -b my_custom_chrome

The following custom browser uses the version matching mechanism to get the latest executable from the /drivers folder:

from selenium import webdriver
from golem.core.utils import match_latest_executable_path
from golem import execution
from golem.webdriver import GolemChromeDriver

def my_custom_chrome(settings):
    executable_path = settings['chromedriver_path']
    matched_executable_path = match_latest_executable_path(executable_path,
    return GolemChromeDriver(executable_path=matched_executable_path,

A custom Firefox:

from selenium.webdriver.firefox.options import Options
from golem.core.utils import match_latest_executable_path
from golem import execution
from golem.webdriver import GolemGeckoDriver

def my_custom_firefox(settings):
    executable_path = settings['geckodriver_path']
    matched_executable_path = match_latest_executable_path(executable_path,
    options = Options()
    return GolemGeckoDriver(executable_path=matched_executable_path, options=options)

A custom remote browser

from golem.webdriver import GolemRemoteDriver

def my_custom_remote_driver(settings):
    capabilities = {
        'browserName': 'chrome',
        'platform': 'WINDOWS',
        'version': ''
    grid_url = 'http://localhost:4444'
    return GolemRemoteDriver(command_executor=grid_url,